The S4 object system

Access slots r,

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Setting a slot first coerces the value to the specified slot and then stores it. The value must be valid for this slot in this object's class. Methods are used to define numeric operations for combining two images, or an image with a constant.

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The distance between the sig-class and arg-class is the sum of the distances between each class matched by named and excluding …. Age is length The value must be valid for this slot in this object's class.

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ANY has the lowest possible precedence in method matching - in other words, it has a distance value higher than any other parent class. Note that the " " operators for extraction and replacement are primitive and actually reside in the base package.

Generic functions and methods

Value The " " operator and the slot function extract or replace the formally defined slots for the object. In this case R will pick the method that is first alphabetically and return a warning message about the situation: In the case of the slot function, name can be any expression that evaluates to a valid slot in the class definition.

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This will raise a run-time error if a method returns output of the wrong class. Should be 1 Generic functions and methods Generic functions and methods work similarly to S3, but dispatch is based on the class of all arguments, and there is a special syntax for creating both generic functions and new methods.

Note that S4 supports multiple inheritance, but this should be used with extreme caution as it makes method lookup extremely complicated.

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There are two special classes that can be used in the signature: In most uses the result is equivalent, and the " " version saves an extra function call, but if empirical evidence shows that a conversion is needed, either call as before the replacement or use the replacement version of slot. If given an argument that is neither a character string nor a class definition, slotNames only uses class x instead.

Details The " " operator and the slot function extract or replace the formally defined slots for the object. The " " version just verifies the relation, leaving any coerce to be done later e. So long as slots are set without cheating, the extracted slots will be valid.

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Print getClass class to see the full description of the slots. Classes and instances In S3, you can turn any object into an object of a particular class just by setting the class attribute.

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A slot name can be any non-empty string, but if the name is not made up of letters, numbers, and. Be aware that there are two ways to cheat, both to be avoided but with no guarantees.

Classes and instances

The Slots in an Object from a Formal Class Description These functions return or set information about the individual slots in an object. Methods and the links from that documentation.

Otherwise, R will figure out the method using the following method: Unlike general attributes, slots are not partially matched, and asking for or trying to set a slot with an invalid name for that class generates an error.

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There are two major differences from S3: